Wednesday, March 28, 2012

Permaculture Plants: Comfrey

Common Name: Comfrey
Scientific Names:
  • Symphytum asperum (Rough/Prickly Comfrey):
  • Symphytum ibericum (Dwarf Comfrey): 12-16” tall and wide
  • Symphytum grandiflorum (Large-Flowered Comfrey): 8-12” tall, 18” wide
  • Symphytum officianale (Wild/Common/Medicinal Comfrey): 3-5’ tall and wide
  • Symphytum orientale (White Comfrey): 2-3’ tall, 12-18” wide
  • Symphytum tuberosum (Tuberous Comfrey): 1-2” tall and wide
  • Symphytum x uplandicum (Russian/Caucasian/Quaker/Blue Comfrey) = natural hybrid of S. asperum and S. officinale: 1-4’ tall, 3’ wide
Family: Boraginaceae (the Borage or Forget-me-Not Family)

Comfrey growing as companion plants to fruit bushes.

Description:
Comfrey is a fast-growing, perennial, herbaceous, clump-forming plant typically with a deep tap-root (that helps draw up nutrients), large leaves (that can be cut and dropped in place or moved to an area where you want/need those nutrients), and small, pretty flowers (that attract a large number of beneficial insects). It can grow in a wide range of growing conditions. It is an ideal "fertilizer" plant in the Forest Garden.
History:
  • Comfrey is a native to Europe and Asia.
  • It has been cultivated since around 400 B.C.
  • Used medicinally in China for over 2,000 years.
  • First brought to Britain in 1800.
  • WIld Comfrey was shipped to North America by English immigrants and Russian Comfrey was shipped to Canada in 1954.

Trivia:
  • The name "comfrey" comes from the Latin for "grow together" - even ancient people understood the value of Comfrey!
  • Also known as “knitbone” after its traditional medicinal use in assisting the healing of broken bones.
USING THIS PLANT
Primary Uses:
  • Mulch – can be cut 1-2 x per year (4-5 x per year if fertilized) to about 2 inches above ground and used as a green or “chop and drop” mulch. Avoid harvest in the first season.
  • Liquid Fertilizer - steeping chopped Comfrey leaves in water for several weeks produces a thick, dark liquid that can be diluted with water and "fed" to plants.
  • Mineral Accumulator – high in potassium, but also phosphorus, calcium, Copper, Iron, and Magnesium
  • Ground Cover – lower growing species can tolerate some foot traffic, plant 2-3 feet apart.
  • General insect (especially bees) nectar and pollen plant
  • Lacewings prefer to lay eggs on Comfrey
  • Spiders prefer to overwinter on Comfrey
  • Parasitoid Wasps and Spiders prefer to spend time and hunt on and around Comfrey

Secondary Uses:
  • Fresh eating – only Symphytum officianale (Common/Medicinal Comfrey) and Symphytum x uplandicum (Russian/Quaker Comfrey). Best when cooked.
  • Forage crop for pigs, sheep, and poultry, but reportedly cattle and rabbits don't like fresh leaves (only wilted).
  • Medicinal – long history of use in aid of wound and bone healing.
Comfrey has medium to large leaves, and some species have tiny hairs on them.

DESIGNING WITH THIS PLANT
AHS Heat Zone: No reliable information found
Chill Requirement: No reliable information found, but likely not required.

Plant Type: Small Tree to Medium-sized Herbaceous Shrub (while frost resistant, continued freezing weather will kill back above ground growth).
Leaf Type: Deciduous
Forest Garden Use: Herbaceous Layer and Ground Cover/Creeper Layer
Cultivars/Varieties: Many species/varieties available. 

Pollination: Self-Pollinating/Self-Fertile
Flowering: May-September (depending on the species)

Life Span: No reliable information available
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THIS PLANT
Size: See individual species list above
Roots: Some have rhizomatous and others have fibrous tap roots - deep and expansive
Growth Rate: Fast

Comfrey's flowers come in a wide range of colors: purple, pink, blue, white, yellow... beautiful!

GROWING CONDITIONS FOR THIS PLANT
Light: Prefers full sun
Shade: Tolerates light shade (about 50%)
Moisture: Medium, some species can be a bit more drought tolerant
pH: tolerates a wide range (6.5-8.5)

Special Considerations for Growing:
This is a great species to plant under fruiting trees. If you want to “chop and drop” frequently as a green mulch, consider fertilization with urine (yeah… just pee on it!) as a simple way to boost growth.

Propagation:
  • Can be propagated through root cuttings in Winter and Spring – should be planted about 2 inches deep.
  • Division in Spring.
  • Symphytum officianale (Common/Medicinal Comfrey) can self-seed.

Maintenance: Minimal.

Concerns:
  • Can be spreading. (Note: the use of "Bocking 14" cultivar is sterile and prevents its spread)
  • Can be hard to eradicate.
  • Poisonous – all parts of the plant contains pentacylic alkaloids (regular consumption can cause liver toxicity)
  • Note that leaves and stems are covered in small hairs that can irritate the skin.

Harvesting Comfrey... pretty easy with such large leaves.


34 comments:

  1. Yes, comfrey is a definite must in the garden. Comfrey poultices helped Hubby this winter with healing his cracked ribs when he slipped and fell on the ice. The pioneers knew well to call it "Boneknit". Appreciate all of the detailed info you post!

    ReplyDelete
  2. Nice video on the uses of comfrey here: http://www.permaculture.co.uk/videos/least-12-reasons-plant-comfrey-symphytum-officinale-your-permaculture-garden
    Beth

    ReplyDelete
  3. I have grown Comfrey successfully for 20 yrs. in Illinois. We moved to Florida a year ago and brought several plants (potted) to transplant as I usually did. It grew well and then it started to turn yellow so I watered it more and it seemed to come back. But it has died off. Now we are in the 'winter' part of Florida and I am hoping it is just in its dormant state, because in Illinois it did so in the winter and then always returned. I planted it in the 'sand' however I mixed it well with potting soil. I am not used to dealing with so much sand and I am trusting I have not lost my comfrey. Do you have any comments to give me hope. Puzzled gardner.

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  4. Before I learned of permaculture, we had common comfrey as a "weed" in our garden.(of course we always tilled, and it spread everywhere!!!) Now I see it in a whole new way, and will be taking it to my new property. Thanks John and Permaculture!

    ReplyDelete
  5. Re: subdivision, we have subdivided as late as the end of September (we're in US Zone 4) with no problem. We pot up divisions and inoculate with mycorrhizal fungi. When the plants put out new leaves and showed root growth at the pot drainage holes - about 3 weeks, we planted them out.

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  6. If anyone in Washington state (USA) is looking for Russian Comfrey (non-seed forming type) I always have extra available for trade (local pickup).
    https://www.facebook.com/groups/PermacultureSwapWashingtonState/permalink/1894735154096357/?sale_post_id=1894735154096357

    ReplyDelete
  7. I've got Iberian comfrey which is a great ground cover and bee plant, but does anyone know if it shares the benefits of officinale and uplandicum e.g. bioaccumulation, fertiliser, medical?

    ReplyDelete
  8. I have a small comfery growing all over my garden, it was there when we bought the place and the garden was the original garden of long ago! It is small and compact with lovely yellow flowers, it seeds easily. Can anyone tell me about it?
    I also would like to know if courgettes/zuccini like comphery?

    ReplyDelete
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  24. Turbotax.ca/download is really a tax free preparation software that coaches you to process and file your earnings in the appropriate method. This program is readily available for both federal and state tax returns. Yet before by using this software in your apparatus, the TurboTax login procedure is crucial. H&R Block is most well-known for their large network of stores that have tax preparers and tax professionals able to assist. Plus, H&R Block is also known for having some of the best tax refund advance products available. You can sign in to your H&R block account at - hrblock.com/login and if you face any issues in sign in then contact to technical support team. H&R Block is most well-known for their large network of stores that have tax preparers and tax professionals able to assist. Plus, H&R Block is also known for having some of the best tax refund advance products available. You can sign in to your H&R block account at - hrblock.com/login and if you face any issues in sign in then contact to technical support team. Fortnite.com/vbuckscard Redeem a gift card for V-Bucks to use in Fortnite.com/vbuckscard on any supported device! V-Bucks can be spent in the Battle Royale PVP mode, Creative, or the Save the World PvE campaign. In Battle Royale and Creative you can purchase new customization items for your Hero, glider, or pickaxe. An Epic Games account is required to redeem a V-Bucks Card code If you have played Fortnite, you already have an Epic Games account. After entering your code on Fortnite.com/vbuckscard , select the platform where you would like the V-Bucks applied. Enter the 10-character activation code at Gethrblock.com/crnp found on the front of the booklet that came with your software. Your activation code is needed for your installation and gives you access to five free federal e-files.

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  26. Fidelity Login Investments Inc, generally known as Fidelity, previously called Fidelity Management & Research or FMR, is an American multinational financial solutions corporation located in Boston, Massachusetts. The best way to log into Vanguard in the web is to use Vanguard login personal investor login screen. If you are on the go frequently, you may also want to check out vanguards mobile app. In order to protect your account, you can implement several security measures such as account access restriction, two-factor authentication, and and security questions. On the contrary, before, you can get authorized to pass through the Yahoo email login page, you need to create a Yahoo account. Meaning that, only users that have signed up for a Yahoo mail login email account can head over the Yahoo mail login page. AOL mail login is a webmail organization that provides authentic email services such as news, email, entertainment, and many more. It is important to understand that it is a web-based email service that is offered by AOL. Sometimes the AOL mail is also known as AIM Mail is that is an instant messaging service. Td ameritrade login is an online stock brokerage that offers zero commission on most equity and exchange-traded fund trades. In addition to online trading, the firm also has more than 250 branches nationwide where investors can speak with consultants or perform administrative functions. If you plan to use TD Ameritrade’s self-directed trading platforms, you’ll have to know how to log in to your account. Time Warner Cable Internet is a popular name in the US when it comes to ISP companies that caters e-gaming, e-shopping and e-mailing services along with many more. Presently, both Roadrunner email and TWC email are merged into Spectrum email, so when you type rr login in your browser, you will be redirected to rr.com log in .

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  28. Yahoo mail Sign in emailing services, Yahoo is also one of the most popular webmail worldwide. It is one of the largest webmail service providers globally, and there are millions of active Yahoo users. Yahoo enables the users to send and receive emails, and it also provides unlimited storage space, virus protection, and blocks spam emails. Amazon.com/mytv is an online web portal to register a smart device with the Amazon Prime activation code on your TV screen.The Amazon.com/myTV registration code is a 5-6 digit code that popup on your TV screen when you click on “Register on Amazon website” on the “Amazon Prime” app on your Firestick. Netflix is ​​the top-rated and one of the best in providing the streaming service. The streaming platform acts as a medium for entertainment with a wide variety of shows, movies, documentaries, and much more. This channel is compatible with the stream on multiple devices. So, if you are interested in watching the latest tv shows or streaming a channel then you can choose your device and access the activation code on netflix activate to watch your favorite channels. Here, in this article, you will understand the basic set of instructions to view channels via Netflix.com/activate . Amazon.com/mytv is link to Sign in and Add Prime Video to your favorite device such as Smart TV, Laptop, Mobile, Tablet etc. With this official link you can manage your Amazon Prime Video Subscription. For Sign in to amazon.com/mytv you should have prior account where you can sign in and Add Prime Video. Single Account on amazon.com/mytv can help you to add Prime video on any device your want. Amazon.com/code is a registration portal of Amazon Prime similar to Amazon.com/mytv. You can browse and sign in to this url as well and enter activation code. The instant video service can only be watched after registering your device with a simple amazon activation code. Primevideo.com/mytv is an online web portal to register a smart device with the Amazon Prime activation code on your TV screen.The Amazon.com/myTV registration code is a 5-6 digit code that popup on your TV screen when you click on “Register on Amazon website” on the “Amazon Prime” app on your Firestick. Amazon is a registration portal of Amazon Prime similar to Amazon.com/mytv. You can browse and sign in to this url as well and enter activation code. The instant video service can only be watched after registering your device with a simple Amazon Activation Code.

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  29. The very first thing you’ll want to do after receiving your credit card is to verify its receipt and activate your Capital One Credit Card at Capitalone.com/activate. JCPenney Gift Card Balance

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