Wednesday, January 16, 2013

Permaculture Plants: Hazelnuts (aka Filberts)

One of the world's most popular nuts... the Hazelnut

Common Name: Hazel, Hazelnuts, Filberts
Scientific Name: Corylus species
Family: Betulaceae (the Birch family) or Corylaceae (the Hazel family) depending on the botanist

Fresh Hazelnuts. This variety in England is called the Kentish Cobnut.

Common Species:
  • American Hazel (Corylus americana) – large shrub
  • European Filbert or Common Hazel (Corylus avellana) – large shrub
  • Chinese Tree Hazel (Corylus chinensis) – large tree
  • Turkish Tree Hazel (Corylus columa) – large tree
  • Beaked Hazel (Corylus cornuta) – large shrub
  • California Hazel (Corylus cornuta californica) - tree
  • Himalayan Hazel (Corylus ferox) - tree
  • Asian or Siberian Filbert (Corylus heterophylia) – large shrub
  • Common Filbert (Corylus maxima) – large shrub
  • Asian Beaked Hazel (Corylus sieboldiana) – large shrub
  • Tibetan Hazel (Corylus tibetica) - tree
  • Trazel (Corylus x columoides) – large tree (hybrid of European Filbert and Turkish Tree Hazel)
  • Filazel/Hazelbert (Corylus x hybrids) – large shrub
  • Chinese Trazel (Corylus x vilmorini) – large tree

Harvesting Hazelnuts
Seed (Left), Seed in Husk (Center), Seeds in a bunch from the tree (Right)

Description:
The Hazels are a group of deciduous large shrubs to large trees that are best known for their edible nuts. They are also fantastic windbreak and living fence plants – they were the traditional boundary markers in England. They provide pollen, food, and shelter for wildlife, and their wood has a large number of uses. These are great plants to blur the boundary from wild to garden.

European Filbert or Common Hazel (Corylus avellana)

History:
The Hazels are a genus of plants containing 14-18 species that are native to the northern temperate climates of the globe. Every species produces edible nuts, but some are larger and tastier than others especially the cultivars that have been developed in recent years.

Trivia:
See my previous articles on "What's in a name? Hazelnuts vs. Filberts vs. Cobnuts" and "Eastern Filbert Blight"

Hazelnuts are used in a wide range of food and drink.
Here is the Rogue Hazelnut Brown Nectar ale

USING THIS PLANT
Primary Uses:
  • Edible nuts – raw, dried, or cooked; the more developed varieties/hybrids have a better flavor
  • Oil can be pressed/expelled from the nuts
  • Dried nuts can be ground into flour

Secondary Uses:
  • General insect pollen plant
  • Nut is a wildlife food of mammals and birds
  • Shrub forms provide shelter for wildlife
  • Windbreak
  • Edible hedge plant
  • Most species can be coppiced (every 6-15+ years)
  • Wood can be used for stakes, rods, thatching, fences, tools, handles, firewood, charcoal, etc.

Yield: 11-25 lbs (5-11 kg) depending on the size of the plant
Harvesting: Late Summer through early Autumn (late August – October). Nuts are either harvested from the ground or with nets while the tree is shaken.
Storage: Dried nuts will store for many years

The female (small and pink) and male (long and pale) catkins (flower clusters) on a Hazel

DESIGNING WITH THIS PLANT
USDA Hardiness Zone:
  • American Hazel (Corylus americana) – Zone 3
  • European Filbert or Common Hazel (Corylus avellana) – Zone 4
  • Chinese Tree Hazel (Corylus chinensis) – Zone 7
  • Turkish Tree Hazel (Corylus columa) – Zone 5
  • Beaked Hazel (Corylus cornuta) – Zone 3
  • California Hazel (Corylus cornuta californica) - Zone 4
  • Himalayan Hazel (Corylus ferox) - Zone 8
  • Asian or Siberian Filbert (Corylus heterophylia) – Zone 5
  • Common Filbert (Corylus maxima) – Zone 5
  • Asian Beaked Hazel (Corylus sieboldiana) – Zone 6
  • Tibetan Hazel (Corylus tibetica) - Zone 7
  • Trazel (Corylus x columoides) – Zone 5
  • Filazel/Hazelbert (Corylus x hybrids) – Zone 3
  • Chinese Trazel (Corylus x vilmorini) – Zone 5

AHS Heat Zone: 3-9
Chill Requirement: less than 100 up to 1,700 hours/units depending on the species and variety

Plant Type: Medium to large-sized Shrubs; Medium to very large-sized Trees
Leaf Type: Deciduous
Forest Garden Use: Canopy Layer, Sub-Canopy (Understory) Layer, Shrub Layer
Cultivars/Varieties: Many species and varieties available.

Pollination: Many of the hybrids and improved varieties are self-fertile, but the undeveloped species require cross-pollination from at least one other variety/cultivar. All varieties will benefit (i.e. produce more nuts) when allowed to cross-pollinate. Note that many Corylus species will cross-pollinate with other varieties and species. Check with your supplier for more specific information since there are so many species and varieties and hybrids. Pollinated by wind.
Flowering: Early Spring through Summer

Life Span:
Years to Begin Bearing: 3-4 years
Years of Useful Life: 40-50 years, but likely much more for the larger tree species; also considering the suckering nature of the shrub species, new shoots will develop into plants to replace older plants thereby making the thicket’s lifespan indefinite.

A large Hazelnut

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THIS PLANT
Size:
  • American Hazel (Corylus americana) – 6-12 feet (1.8-3.5 meters) tall and 6-20 feet (1.8-6 meters) wide
  • European Filbert or Common Hazel (Corylus avellana) – 12-25 feet (3.5-7.5 meters) tall and 25 feet (7.5 meters) wide
  • Chinese Tree Hazel (Corylus chinensis) – 120 feet (36 meters) tall and 75 feet (22 meters) wide
  • Turkish Tree Hazel (Corylus columa) – 80 feet (24 meters) tall and 30 feet (9 meters) wide
  • Beaked Hazel (Corylus cornuta) – 6-12 feet (1.8-3.5 meters) tall and wide
  • California Hazel (Corylus cornuta californica) - 26 feet (8 meters) tall
  • Himalayan Hazel (Corylus ferox) - 33 feet (10 meters) tall
  • Asian or Siberian Filbert (Corylus heterophylia) – 23 feet (7 meters) tall
  • Common Filbert (Corylus maxima) – 19 feet (6 meters) tall and 16 feet (5 meters) wide
  • Asian Beaked Hazel (Corylus sieboldiana) – 16 feet (5 meters) tall
  • Tibetan Hazel (Corylus tibetica) - 50 feet (15 meters) tall
  • Trazel (Corylus x columoides) – 60 feet (18 meters) tall and 40 feet (12 meters) wide
  • Filazel/Hazelbert (Corylus x hybrids) – 12-15 feet (3.5-4.5 meters) tall and 12-20 feet (3.5-6 meters) wide
  • Chinese Trazel (Corylus x vilmorini) – 82 feet (25 meters) tall

Roots: All the shrub forms have fibrous, suckering roots that will send up new shoots to form a clumping thicket
Growth Rate: Medium to Medium-Fast


Hedgerows, often of Hazels, were traditionally used as boundary markers in Britain.


GROWING CONDITIONS FOR THIS PLANT
Light: Prefers full sun
Shade: Tolerates deep shade, but nut production is reduced proportionate to light reduction
Moisture: Medium soil moisture preferred
pH: most species prefer fairly neutral to alkaline soil (6.1 - 7.5)

Special Considerations for Growing:
Tolerates juglone (natural growth inhibitor produced by Black Walnut and its relatives). Consider using this tree as a buffer between your walnuts and other plantings.

Propagation: Stool layering is common. Can divide suckers in early Spring. Usually grafted. Seeds need at 16-20 weeks stratification for germination.

Maintenance:
Minimal. May need to cut back the shoots from suckering roots if you do not want a thicket or hedge.

Concerns:
Some people have seasonal allergies to the pollen


74 comments:

  1. We planted a couple of American Hazels this spring. How would you suggest incorporating the nuts into a beer?

    ReplyDelete
  2. I'm looking at planting a few hazelnuts and want to do so in guilds. What do you recommend to plant with them?

    ReplyDelete
  3. How can a mono crop filbert orchard be guided toward multi-species, stacking, permaculture methodologies? Current practice is for sweeping fallen nuts for harvest, meaning orchard floor needs to be clean and clear of other plants.

    ReplyDelete
  4. I would suggest culinary and medicinal herbs. Many of them are self-seeding annuals. Most herbs would be cut down to harvest long before nut harvest time so raking or sweeping wont hurt anything and they wont be in the way.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Thanks I have read your article, it is very interesting and exciting
    download go launcher, go launcher apk, go launcher , go launcher androi,

    ReplyDelete
  6. Mostly people have all the same things when they are writing academic task or any other writing, especially light music most people like during the writing.
    dream league soccer download , dream league soccer apk , download dream league soccer , dream league soccer

    ReplyDelete
  7. You need to have time to take care of the active. It in fact was a amusement account it. Look advanced to far added agreeable from you.

    baixar banana kong , banana kong , download banana kong , banana kong download , banana kong

    ReplyDelete
  8. Mostly people have all the same things when they are writing academic task or any other writing, especially light music most people like during the writing.
    facebook iniciar sesión , facebook, iniciar sesion , iniciar sesion facebook

    ReplyDelete
  9. Mostly people have all the same things when they are writing academic task or any other writing, especially light music most people like during the writing.

    subway surf , baixar subway surf, subway surf download , download subway surf

    ReplyDelete
  10. You need to have time to take care of the active. It in fact was a amusement account it. Look advanced to far added agreeable from you.

    entrar hotmail agora , hotmail entrar, entrar hotmail , entrar no hotmail

    ReplyDelete
  11. Can huzlenut tree grow in 45 degree Celsius

    ReplyDelete
  12. Allnuts.be is an online nut shop where you can go for a large assortment of nuts as a private person or as a trader. We offer you 58 types in total. We already start with a selection from our range: chia seeds, linseed, walnuts, cashews, almonds, pecans, Brazil nuts, hazelnuts, pistachios and oat flakes. Some nuts are better known to the general public than other species. That is also the reason why we devote an article to each of our notes. Do you want to know more about each type that we sell at Allnuts.be nut shop? Then take a look at our site and click on the notes tab on our website. Noten

    ReplyDelete
  13. Almonds are one of the healthiest nuts and packed with vitamins and minerals. Do you want to buy almonds online? You can order almonds at Allnuts! Almonds are among the best known types of nuts that exist. These nuts are used in pastries, cookies and of course also in sugar. Most people are therefore able to recognize these notes by their color and their shape. In addition to whole fruits, almond powder and almond flakes are often used. Amandelen

    ReplyDelete


  14. شركة نقل عفش
    اهم شركات مكافحة حشرات بالخبر كذلك معرض اهم شركة مكافحة حشرات بالدمام والخبر والجبيل والخبر والاحساء والقطيف كذلك شركة رش حشرات بالدمام ومكافحة الحشرات بالخبر
    شركة مكافحة حشرات بالدمام
    شركة تنظيف خزانات بجدة الجوهرة من افضل شركات تنظيف الخزانات بجدة حيث ان تنظيف خزانات بجدة يحتاج الى مهارة فى كيفية غسيل وتنظيف الخزانات الكبيرة والصغيرة بجدة على ايدى متخصصين فى تنظيف الخزانات بجدة
    شركة تنظيف خزانات بجدة
    شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالدمام
    شركة نقل عفش واثاث


    ReplyDelete



  15. شركة نقل عفش بالرياض وجدة والدمام والخبر والجبيل اولقطيف والاحساء والرياض وجدة ومكة المدينة المنورة والخرج والطائف وخميس مشيط وبجدة افضل شركة نقل عفش بجدة نعرضها مجموعة الفا لنقل العفش بمكة والخرج والقصيم والطائف وتبوك وخميس مشيط ونجران وجيزان وبريدة والمدينة المنورة وينبع افضل شركات نقل الاثاث بالجبيل والطائف وخميس مشيط وبريدة وعنيزو وابها ونجران المدينة وينبع تبوك والقصيم الخرج حفر الباطن والظهران
    شركة نقل عفش بجدة
    شركة نقل عفش بالمدينة المنورة
    شركة نقل اثاث بالرياض
    شركة نقل عفش بالدمام

    ReplyDelete
  16. I was reading some of your content on this website and I conceive this internet site is really informative ! Keep on putting up. liquid hangsen appel

    ReplyDelete
  17. I haven’t any word to appreciate this post.....Really i am impressed from this post....the person who create this post it was a great human..thanks for shared this with us. Online games

    ReplyDelete
  18. Excellent article. Very interesting to read. I really love to read such a nice article. Thanks! keep rocking. SEO bureau Nijmegen

    ReplyDelete
  19. I’m going to read this. I’ll be sure to come back. thanks for sharing. and also This article gives the light in which we can observe the reality. this is very nice one and gives indepth information. thanks for this nice article... Autoverhuur Limburg

    ReplyDelete
  20. Really I enjoy your site with effective and useful information. It is included very nice post with a lot of our resources.thanks for share. i enjoy this post. Makelaar Roermond

    ReplyDelete
  21. I’m going to read this. I’ll be sure to come back. thanks for sharing. and also This article gives the light in which we can observe the reality. this is very nice one and gives indepth information. thanks for this nice article... Restaurant meubilair

    ReplyDelete
  22. https://schoonmaakbedrijfvaniersel.nl/schoonmaakbedrijf-eindhoven/

    ReplyDelete
  23. I am impressed. I don't think Ive met anyone who knows as much about this subject as you do. You are truly well informed and very intelligent. You wrote something that people could understand and made the subject intriguing for everyone. Really, great blog you have got here. e-liquid kopen

    ReplyDelete
  24. Excellent article. Very interesting to read. I really love to read such a nice article. Thanks! keep rocking. zorgmeubelen

    ReplyDelete
  25. I’m going to read this. I’ll be sure to come back. thanks for sharing. and also This article gives the light in which we can observe the reality. this is very nice one and gives indepth information. thanks for this nice article... sexy lingerie kopen

    ReplyDelete
  26. Very efficiently written information. It will be beneficial to anybody who utilizes it, including me. Keep up the good work. For sure i will check out more posts. This site seems to get a good amount of visitors. Heerlen slot vervangen

    ReplyDelete
  27. This is such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free. I love seeing blog that understand the value of providing a quality resource for free. e liquid Millers

    ReplyDelete
  28. Very efficiently written information. It will be beneficial to anybody who utilizes it, including me. Keep up the good work. For sure i will check out more posts. This site seems to get a good amount of visitors. Huis kopen Venray

    ReplyDelete
  29. I’m going to read this. I’ll be sure to come back. thanks for sharing. and also This article gives the light in which we can observe the reality. this is very nice one and gives indepth information. thanks for this nice article... ADR certificaat

    ReplyDelete
  30. Excellent article. Very interesting to read. I really love to read such a nice article. Thanks! keep rocking. Zonnepanelen kopen Parkstad

    ReplyDelete
  31. I’m going to read this. I’ll be sure to come back. thanks for sharing. and also This article gives the light in which we can observe the reality. this is very nice one and gives indepth information. thanks for this nice article... Samsung telefoonhoesje

    ReplyDelete
  32. I haven’t any word to appreciate this post.....Really i am impressed from this post....the person who create this post it was a great human..thanks for shared this with us. Rijschool Geleen

    ReplyDelete
  33. This is my first visit to your web journal! We are a group of volunteers and new activities in the same specialty. Website gave us helpful data to work. Code95 maastricht

    ReplyDelete
  34. When your website or blog goes live for the first time, it is exciting. That is until you realize no one but you and your. Bedrijf starten

    ReplyDelete
  35. I haven’t any word to appreciate this post.....Really i am impressed from this post....the person who create this post it was a great human..thanks for shared this with us. Boksbalmachine kopen

    ReplyDelete
  36. This is my first time visit to your blog and I am very interested in the articles that you serve. Provide enough knowledge for me. Thank you for sharing useful and don't forget, keep sharing useful info: Eenmanszaak vof BV

    ReplyDelete
  37. I’m going to read this. I’ll be sure to come back. thanks for sharing. and also This article gives the light in which we can observe the reality. this is very nice one and gives indepth information. thanks for this nice article... Aanmaning

    ReplyDelete
  38. I have read all the comments and suggestions posted by the visitors for this article are very fine,We will wait for your next article so only.Thanks! Graphics designer

    ReplyDelete
  39. I high appreciate this post. It’s hard to find the good from the bad sometimes, but I think you’ve nailed it! would you mind updating your blog with more information? Logo designer

    ReplyDelete
  40. Positive site, where did u come up with the information on this posting?I have read a few of the articles on your website now, and I really like your style. Thanks a million and please keep up the effective work. water filter systems

    ReplyDelete
  41. Its a great pleasure reading your post.Its full of information I am looking for and I love to post a comment that "The content of your post is awesome" Great work. 2d animation

    ReplyDelete
  42. I have read your blog it is very helpful for me. I want to say thanks to you. I have bookmark your site for future updates. motion graphic vedios

    ReplyDelete
  43. I admire this article for the well-researched content and excellent wording. I got so involved in this material that I couldn’t stop reading. I am impressed with your work and skill. Thank you so much. foro para webmasters

    ReplyDelete
  44. Wow i can say that this is another great article as expected of this blog.Bookmarked this site.. 파워볼사이트

    ReplyDelete
  45. I wanted to thank you for this great read!! I definitely enjoying every little bit of it I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff you post. Peluquería en Madrid

    ReplyDelete
  46. Pretty good post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I'll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again soon. Big thanks for the useful info. Pressure Washing Services

    ReplyDelete
  47. It was wondering if I could use this write-up on my other website, I will link it back to your website though.Great Thanks. pressure washing services

    ReplyDelete
  48. I admire this article for the well-researched content and excellent wording. I got so involved in this material that I couldn’t stop reading. I am impressed with your work and skill. Thank you so much. commercial power washing

    ReplyDelete
  49. Wow! Such an amazing and helpful post this is. I really really love it. It's so good and so awesome. I am just amazed. I hope that you continue to do your work like this in the future also wichita jewelry

    ReplyDelete
  50. I’m going to read this. I’ll be sure to come back. thanks for sharing. and also This article gives the light in which we can observe the reality. this is very nice one and gives indepth information. thanks for this nice article... blog o grafice

    ReplyDelete
  51. Nice post! This is a very nice blog that I will definitively come back to more times this year! Thanks for informative post. Shopping

    ReplyDelete
  52. Very efficiently written information. It will be beneficial to anybody who utilizes it, including me. Keep up the good work. For sure i will check out more posts. This site seems to get a good amount of visitors. Oh My Home UK

    ReplyDelete
  53. What a fantabulous post this has been. Never seen this kind of useful post. I am grateful to you and expect more number of posts like these. Thank you very much. eCommerce

    ReplyDelete
  54. Great article Lot's of information to Read...Great Man Keep Posting and update to People..Thanks Property Management Sarasota Florida

    ReplyDelete
  55. Love to read it,Waiting For More new Update and I Already Read your Recent Post its Great Thanks. Agen Casino Online

    ReplyDelete
  56. Thank you for taking the time to publish this information very useful! Agen Casino Terpercaya

    ReplyDelete
  57. I really appreciate this wonderful post that you have provided for us. I assure this would be beneficial for most of the people. Thanks for sharing the information keep updating, looking forward to more posts.
    High Quality Product Images

    ReplyDelete
  58. The website is looking bit flashy and it catches the visitors eyes. Design is pretty simple and a good user friendly interface. San Diego Private investigator

    ReplyDelete
  59. It's kinda sad, that these spambots just took over your website.
    That's the most useful website for people living in rest of Europe now, including me.

    So thanks a lot!!

    Anyway: there is a small mistake:
    latin of Turkish Tree Hazel is not Corylus columa, but Corylus coluRNa

    Cheers,

    ReplyDelete
  60. This post is very simple to read and appreciate without leaving any details out. Great work. Warriors Vest

    ReplyDelete
  61. i am browsing this website dailly and get nice facts from here all the time

    ReplyDelete

  62. very nice article , i found something more intresting
    Green Lantern Logo Jacket

    ReplyDelete
  63. You are very articulate and explain your ideas and opinions clearly leaving no room for miscommunication.
    Please Kindly check My web: buy instagram followers

    ReplyDelete
  64. You are very articulate and explain your ideas and opinions clearly leaving no room for miscommunication.
    Please Kindly check My web: buy instagram followers targeted

    ReplyDelete
  65. Very informative and well-written post! Quite an interesting and nice topic chosen for the post. Your need social service our many type service here please check buy facebook followers

    ReplyDelete
  66. You are very articulate and explain your ideas and opinions clearly leaving no room for miscommunication. Please Kindly check My web: social media presence

    ReplyDelete
  67. You are very articulate and explain your ideas and opinions clearly leaving no room for miscommunication.
    Please Kindly check My web:buy instagram likes

    ReplyDelete